Types of Retaining Walls
Whether you’re building a new home or looking to remodel an old one, there are many types of retaining walls available. You should choose the one that best suits your needs.
Gravity retaining wall
Whether you are looking to add a few stairs to your home, level your landscape, or expand your usable space, a gravity retaining wall may be your solution. These are economical and simple to install, and will last for decades with minimal maintenance. Check out for paving repairs adelaide.
The most popular materials for gravity retaining walls are brick, pavers, and dry-stacked stone. These walls can be built in many different shapes and sizes by using a variety construction methods.
There are seven basic categories of gravity retaining walls: semi-gravity retaining walls, counterfort retaining walls, stem walls, gabion retaining walls, crib retaining walls, miscellaneous retaining structures, and RCC cantilever retaining walls. These are classified according to the load transfer mechanism and construction process.
Gravity retaining walls are usually trapezoidal in cross-section. 31 degrees is the angle between the horizontal sliding surface at base of wall and the soil. The thickness of the gravity retaining wall increases as the height of the retaining wall increases. The vertical distance between the center of gravity of the retaining wall and the wall toe is approximately 1 meter.
The height of the gravity retaining wall can range from 1.8 to 2.4 meters. The retaining wall’s mass is crucial in resisting lateral pressure. The resulting force is also an important factor in maintaining stability. For example, a gravity retaining wall in a shallow valley will have an elevation of 1.0 meter below the groundwater level.
The standard analysis of gravity retaining walls considers both active and passive forces. This includes the wall’s weight, the vertical component and the static active earth pressure. It also includes the inertia force caused by earthquakes and hydrostatic pressures due to water tables. These factors combine with the setback of the wall to determine the maximum retaining wall height.
Gravity retaining walls have the advantage of being able to be constructed in many materials and take very little time to install. For larger projects, however, construction costs may be more expensive. In addition, they are not generally used to hold back fills. They are more suitable for smaller-scale projects. The types of materials for gravity retaining walls are determined by the size and shape of the wall and the desired appearance.
A retaining wall must be designed to withstand the gravity load as well as rotational, flexural and shear stresses. The flexural stresses are low and are often only relevant during the design and construction phases. Concrete masonry calculations do not include shear stresses, which are usually not significant.
The most common failure modes for gravity retaining walls are inertia forces due to earthquakes, and reactive forces, such as hydrostatic pressures. These forces are located within the wall’s middle third. Unlike cantilever retaining walls, gravity retaining walls do not have embedded piles. They do, however, use the lip of the stone edge to help maintain stability.
Cantilever retaining wall
Typically constructed in construction sites or for a slope in the land, a cantilever retaining wall is a wall that is attached to a larger structural footing and has a large base. They are resistant to sliding and overturning. Cantilever retaining walls can be pre-cast or built on site. They are usually less expensive than gravity walls, and require fewer materials for construction by adelaide gardener.
A cantilever wall is a concrete structure that has an L-shaped foundation. It is composed of reinforced concrete and structural steel. It can be designed to a wide range of elevation differences, from 10 feet to 25 feet. For aesthetic and durability purposes, the wall’s outer surface can be covered with a variety materials. It can be designed to blend into the surrounding environment.
The lateral pressure of the soil on a cantilever retaining wall depends on the cohesive strength of the earth fill. The wall’s top is at zero pressure, and the depth increases proportionally. Active earth pressure is reduced by a shorter wall heel. The height of the heel also determines how long the relief shelf will need to be. The active earth pressure will rise if the heel is higher than normal. Stability is also affected by the width of your stem.
The stem can be made of concrete or masonry. It can be tapered or be of the same thickness throughout the wall. A thicker stem will allow for a more slender ratio. It can also increase the wall’s self-weight. A thicker stem might be more resistant to overturning.
The footing should have the main reinforcing metal on the bottom. This prevents the shear stress at the base slab. It also helps control shrinkage when concrete is poured. The design code recommends a maximum shear of 24 kN/m. This is discussed in the article “Allowable Stress Design of Concrete Masonry.”
A cantilever retaining wall must be designed to ensure stability in order to make it a safe structure. Stability includes sliding, overturning, and bearing pressure. In addition, the restoring moment of the wall should be checked. The total load of the wall should be less than the allowable shear. The maximum moment is equal to the sum of the horizontal loads corresponding to the lever arm. The length of the relief shelf should be no more than one third of the height of the wall.
The lateral pressure of the wall also has a direct influence on the movement of the wall. Boussinesq’s method can help you determine this. To account for friction between soil and wall, a coefficient of friction of 0.50 is used. Slip circle failure can be caused by excessive bending stress at base slab. This can be a problem in clay soils.
Stone or brick retaining wall
A brick or stone retaining wall can add style and privacy to your home. It can enhance the appearance of your yard, protect it from erosion, and increase the property’s value. They are a great way to retain plants and trees and can also be used to create sunken patios. There are a variety of styles to choose from, and they all have their own unique benefits.
The first course of blocks in a three-foot retaining wall should be perfectly level. This is important because it will affect the finished wall. The bottom row of the wall should be treated the same way. This should be buried about five inches below the soil level.
A wall with proper drainage is the best. If the water behind a wall doesn’t drain away, it can swell the soil and push the wall down. The water will be captured by a perforated drainage tube near the bottom. This can save your life by reducing the pressure on the wall.
A brick or stone retaining wall must have adequate drainage to be effective. This can be done by adding a few drainage rocks or pipes to the back of the wall. The more drainage rocks that you place at the back, the less you will need to worry about.
You should also consider building a weephole, which is a small hole in the wall that allows rainwater to escape. These holes should be placed at regular intervals along the wall.
A retaining wall can also be used to improve the drainage of your lawn. This can help prevent flooding and mudslides. It can also serve as a backdrop for planting beds and other landscaping elements. A retaining wall can be used to level out sloped ground.
Retaining walls come in a variety of materials, including brick, stone, concrete, and wood. They can be a great way to enhance your home’s beauty and last for many years. However, they can be difficult to construct on your own. You might hire a professional to help you with a larger project. There are many options available, and your needs will dictate the material you choose.
If you have a large area to work with, you might want to look into natural stone. This is a material that has been used by homeowners for centuries. It is also a more cost-effective option to wood which is susceptible to mold and moisture. There are many companies that specialize installing stone retaining wall. This means that you have a lot of options.